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OR1: Organisational culture for CQI

Davies, H., S. Nutley & Mannion, R. 2000, Organisational culture and quality of health care, Quality in Health Care, vol. 9: 111–19.

Shortell, S. M., O'Brien, J. L., Carman, J. M., Foster, R. W., Hughes, E., Boerstler, H. & O'Connor, E. J. 1995, Assessing the impact of continuous quality improvement/total quality management: Concept versus implementation, Health Services Research, vol.30(2): 377.

OR2: Leadership

Best, A., Greenhalgh, T., Lewis, S., Saul, J. E., Carroll, S. & Bitz, J. 2012, Large‐system transformation in health care: A realist review, Milbank Quarterly, vol. 90(3): 421–56.

Business Dictionary, Transformational leadership. Accessed 19 February 2019 at:

Chassin, M. & Loeb, J. 2011, The ongoing quality improvement journey: Next stop, high reliability, Health Affairs, vol. 30(4): 559–68.

Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., Macfarlane, F., Bate, P. & Kyriakidou, O. 2004, Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: Systematic review and recommendations, Milbank Quarterly, vol. 82(4): 581–629.

Grol, R. & Grimshaw, J. 2003, From best evidence to best practice: Effective implementation of change in patients' care, The Lancet, vol. 362(9391): 1225–30.

Grol, R. & Jones, R. 2000, Twenty years of implementation research, Family Practice, vol. 17(90001): 32–35.

Grol, R., Wensing, M., Bosch, M.,Hulscher, M. & Eccles, M. 2013, Theories on implementation of change in healthcare, Improving Patient Care: The Implementation of Change in Health Care, 2nd edn, pp. 18–39.

OR3: Systems thinking

Business Dictionary, Complex adaptive system (CAS). Accessed 19 February, 2019 at:

Dolansky, M. A. & Moore, S. M. 2013, Quality and safety education for nurses (QSEN): The key is systems thinking, Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, vol. 18(3). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol18No03Man01.

De Savigny, D. & Adam, T.  2009, Systems thinking for health systems strengthening, World Health Organization.

OR4: Population health approach

Kindig, D. & Stoddart, G., 2003, What Is Population Health?, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 93(3).

OR5: Client-centred care

Health Foundation 2014, Person-centred care made simple, Health Foundation, London, UK. Accessed 21 February 2019 at:

IPFC 2011, Advancing the practice of patient- and family-centered care in primary care and other ambulatory settings: How to get started. Accessed 21 February 2019 at:

Johnson, B. H. & Abraham, M. R. 2012, Partnering with Patients, Residents, and Families: A resource for leaders of hospitals, ambulatory care settings, and long-term care communities, Institute for Patient- and Family-Centered Care, Bethesda, MD. Accessed 21 February 2019 at:

Rathert, C., Wyrwich, M. D. & S. A. Boren 2013,  Patient-centered care and outcomes: A systematic review of the literature, Medical Care Research & Review, vol. 70(4): 351–79.

Robb, G. & Seddon, M. 2006, Quality improvement in New Zealand healthcare, Part 6: Keeping the patient front and centre to improve healthcare quality, The New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 119(1242): U2174–U2174.

OR6: Workforce 

Alberts & McIntyre 2014, A Systematic Approach for Assessing Workforce Readiness, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University. Accessed 21 February 2019 at:

Audet, A.-M. J., Doty, M. M., Shamasdin, J. & Schoenbaum, S. C. 2005, Measure, learn, and improve: physicians’ involvement in quality improvement, Health Affairs, vol. 24(3): 843–53.

Baldrige Glossary for Business, Public Sector and Other Nonprofit 2007, Workforce Capability. Accessed 21 February 2019 at: 

Devitt, N. & Murphy, J. 2004, A survey of the information management and technology training needs of doctors in an acute NHS trust in the United Kingdom, Health Information & Libraries Journal, vol. 21(3): 164–172.

Neale, G., Vincent, C. & Darzi, A. 2007, The problem of engaging hospital doctors in promoting safety and quality in clinical care, The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Healt, vol. 127(2): 87–94.

Batalden, P., Berwick, D., Bisognano, M., Splaine, M., Baker, G. & Headrick, L. 1998, Knowledge domains for health professional students seeking competency in the continual improvement and innovation of health care, Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Boston, MA.

The Health Foundation 2012, Evidence scan: Quality improvement training for healthcare professionals, The Health Foundation. Accessed 21 February 2019  at:

OR7: Resources

Wood, J. M. 2004, Organisational behaviour: A global perspective, John Wiley & Sons, Milton, QLD.

Fries Taylor, E., Peikes, D., Genevro, J. & Meyers, D. 2013, Creating Capacity for Improvement in Primary Care, Decisionmaker Brief: Primary Care Quality Improvement No. 1, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Rockville, MD. Accessed 21 February 2019 at:

OR8: Data and analytic capability — See OR9

OR9 Systematic use of data

Rubenstein, L., Khodyakov, D., Hempel, S., Danz, M., Salem-Schatz, S., Foy, R., O'Neill, S., Dalal, S. & Shekelle, P. 2013, How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?, International Journal for Quality in Health Care, vol. 26(1): 6-15.

OR10 Tools (PDSA), Tool – definition. Accessed 21 February 2019 at:

Stacey, R. D. 1995, The science of complexity: An alternative perspective for strategic change processes, Strategic Management Journal, vol.16: 477–95. DOI:10.1002/smj.4250160606

Langley, G., Nolan, K. & Nolan, T. 1992, The foundation of improvement (Part 1), Associate in Process Improvement, Silver Spring MD.

OR11 Teamwork

Chin, M. H., Kirchhoff, A. C., Schlotthauer, A. E., Graber, J. E., Brown, S. E., Rimington, A., Drum, M. L., Schaefer, C. T., Heuer, L. J. & Huang, E. S. 2008, Sustaining quality improvement in community health centers: Perceptions of leaders and staff, The Journal of Ambulatory Care Management, vol. 31(4): 319.

Fox, P., Porter, P. G., Lob, S. H., Boer, J. H., Rocha, D. A. & Adelson, J. W. 2007, Improving asthma-related health outcomes among low-income, multiethnic, school-aged children: Results of a demonstration project that combined continuous quality improvement and community health worker strategies, Pediatrics, vol. 120(4): e902–e911.

Gardner, K. L., Dowden, M., Togni, S. & Bailie, R. 2010, Understanding uptake of continuous quality improvement in Indigenous primary health care: Lessons from a multi-site case study of the audit and best practice for chronic disease project, Implementation Science, vol. 5: 21.

Lob, S. H., Boer, J. H., Porter, P. G., Núñez, D. & Fox, P. 2011, Promoting best-care practices in childhood asthma: Quality improvement in community health centers, Pediatrics, vol. 128(1): 20–28.

Lowitja Institute 2014, Recommendations for a National CQI Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Primary Health Care, Final Report. Health/098/1314, 8 September 2014. Accessed 21 February 2019 at:

Sollecito, W. A. & Johnson, J. K., eds. 2013, Continuous quality improvement in health care: Theory, implementations, and applications, Jones and Bartlett, USA.

Business Dictionary, Teamwork – definition. Accessed 21 February 2019 at:

Katzenbach, J. R. & Smith, D. K. 1993, The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the high-performance organization, Harper Business, New York, NY.

Rubenstein, L., Khodyakov, D., Hempel, S., Danz, M., Salem-Schatz, S., Foy, R., O'Neill, S., Dalal, S. & Shekelle, P. 2013, How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?, International Journal for Quality in Health Care, vol. 26(1): 6–15.

OR2 External partnerships and relationships 

APPS 2009, Building a working definition of partnership. Accessed 22 May 2015 at:

Haynes, E., Taylor, K. P., Durey, A., Bessarab, D. & Thompson, S. C. 2014, Examining the potential contribution of social theory to developing and supporting Australian Indigenous-mainstream health service partnerships, International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 13(1): 75.

OR13 Community engagement

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) 2012, National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards, September, ACSQHC, Sydney.

Australian Government & Closing the Gap 2013,  National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health plan 2013–2023. Accessed 21 February 2019 at:$File/health-plan.pdf

Briggs, D. S. 2008, SHAPE Declaration on the Organisation and Management of Health Services: A call for informed public debate, Asia Pacific Journal of Health Management, vol. 3(2): 10-13.

Chandler, M. J. & Lalonde, C. 1998,  Cultural continuity as a hedge against suicide in Canada's First Nations, Transcultural Psychiatry, vol. 35(2): 191–219.

Lavoie, J. G., Forget, E. L., Prakash, T., Dahl, M., Martens, P. & O’Neil, J. D. 2010, Have investments in on-reserve health services and initiatives promoting community control improved First Nations’ health in Manitoba?, Social Science & Medicine, vol. 71(4): 717–24.

Rowley, K. G., Daniel, M., Skinner, K., Skinner, M., White, G. A. & O'Dea, K. 2000, Effectiveness of a community‐directed ‘healthy lifestyle’ program in a remote Australian Aboriginal community, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, vol. 24(2): 136–44.

Tindana, P. O., Singh, J. A., Tracy, C. S., Upshur, R. E. G., Daar, A. S., Singer, P. A,, et al. 2007, Grand Challenges in Global Health: Community engagement in research in developing countries, PLoS Med, vol. 4(9): e273.