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Effectiveness of Chronic Care Model-oriented Interventions to Improve Quality of Diabetes Care: A systematic review

Background The chronic care model (CCM) has been widely used in a variety of health care settings to guide system improvement for chronic illness care, including diabetes care. However, the evidence base for the specific components of the model has not been systematically reviewed. This review aimed at examining the extent to which interventions featuring the CCM components improve diabetes care and determining the relative effectiveness of different CCM components.

Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE (1966 to December 2004), the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register to identify interventions featuring one or more system components of the CCM for diabetes care. Outcome measures included HbA1c, blood pressure and blood lipid control. We used random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression for quantitative synthesis of data.

Results In all, 69 studies (43 randomized controlled trials and 26 controlled before–after studies) met inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Overall, included studies reported a mean reduction of 0.46% (95% CI 0.38, 0.54) in HbA1c, mean reduction of 2.2 (95% CI 0.9, 3.5) mmHg in systolic blood pressure, mean reduction of 1.3 (95% CI 0.6, 2.1) mmHg in diastolic blood pressure and mean reduction of 0.24 (95% CI 0.06, 0.41) mmol/L in total cholesterol. For specific CCM components, interventions that addressed delivery system design reported the largest improvements in patient outcomes, followed by those employing a self-management support component. Interventions involving decision support or clinical information systems reported relatively smaller effect sizes.

Conclusions Interventions featuring CCM components for diabetes care produced small-to-moderate improvements in a range of patient intermediate outcomes. The findings support the concept of the CCM in which the state of development of various aspects of primary care service systems defined in this model appear to be important factors in the quality of care provided to people with diabetes.

(Received April 2007)