Dr Lowitja O’Donoghue was born in 1932 at Indulkana, in the remote north-west corner of South Australia, to a Pitjantjatjara mother and an Irish father. When she was just two years old, she and two of her sisters were taken away from their mother by missionaries on behalf of South Australia’s Aboriginal Protection Board.
Renamed ‘Lois’ by the missionaries, she and her sisters grew up at Colebrook Children’s Home and did not see their mother again for more than 30 years. They weren't allowed to speak their own language or to ask questions about their origins or even about their parents.
Dr O’Donoghue attended Unley General Technical High School in Adelaide and set her sights on becoming a nurse. After initial training, she had to fight to be able to continue her studies, thus beginning her lifelong advocacy for Aboriginal rights. In 1954 she became the ﬁrst Aboriginal trainee nurse at the Royal Adelaide Hospital where she became charge sister after graduation, staying for 10 years.
After spending time in the mid-1960s at the Baptists Overseas Mission in Assam, India, and following the 1967 Referendum, Dr O’Donoghue returned to Australia and joined the Department of Aboriginal Affairs. She accepted a position in the remote South Australian town of Coober Pedy where an aunt and uncle, noticing the family resemblance, recognised her in a local supermarket. Through this chance meeting she was ﬁnally reunited with her mother, Lily, who by this time was living in the nearby town of Oodnadatta.
From 1970–72, Dr O’Donoghue was a member of the Aboriginal Legal Rights Movement, and later became Regional Director of the Australian Department of Aboriginal Affairs. In 1976, she became the ﬁrst Aboriginal woman to be awarded an Order of Australia (AO), and a year later was appointed the foundation Chair of the National Aboriginal Conference and Chair of the Aboriginal Development Commission.
In March 1990, Dr O'Donoghue was appointed the founding Chairperson of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC); during this time she played a key role in drafting the Native Title legislation that arose from the High Court’s historic Mabo decision.
When she stepped down from this role, Dr O’Donoghue became the inaugural Chair of the Cooperative Research Centre for Aboriginal and Tropical Health (1996–2003), which led to the CRC for Aboriginal Health (2003–09), the CRC for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health, and the Lowitja Institute Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health CRC (2014–19). The Lowitja Institute was established in January 2010 and it currently hosts the CRC organisation.
Dr O’Donoghue has received numerous awards and accolades for her work. She was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1983 and Australian of the Year in 1984, during which time she became the ﬁrst Aboriginal person to address the United Nations General Assembly. She won the Advance Australia Award in 1982, was named a National Living Treasure in 1998, and awarded Companion of the Order of Australia (AC) in 1999 and Dame of the Order of St Gregory the Great (DSG), a Papal Award, in 2005.
An Honorary Fellow of both the Royal Australian College of Physicians and the Royal College of Nursing, Dr O’Donoghue also holds an Honorary Doctorate of Law from the Australian National University and Notre Dame University, and an Honorary Doctorate from Flinders University, Australian National University, University of South Australia and Queensland University of Technology. She has also been a Professorial Fellow at Flinders University since 2000.